For developing countries with scarce access to clean water, water well drilling for water is essential. Learning how to drill effectively and at a low cost is important. Using proper equipment to drill these cost-effective boreholes is the only solution.
In this blog, we will understand and list the different drilling methods with their advantages and disadvantages for developing countries.
Types of Drilling Methods
Drilling methods include:
- Percussion Drilling (cable tool drilling)
- Hand-auger Drilling
- Air Hammer drilling
- Air Rotary Drilling
- Mud Rotary Drilling
First, let’s talk about drilling constraints and why they are important. Depending on the geological formations, they can be consolidated or unconsolidated formations. Understanding the difference is essential to use the proper drilling methods.
Consolidated formations such as hard rock like granite, basalt, or slate, are hard, solid, and dense, will need a percussion drilling method,. On the other hand, unconsolidated formations such as sand, silt, or clay are weak and are typically drilled with mud rotary.
Low-Cost Drilling Methods: What They Are and How They Are Used
Percussion drilling is a type of drilling where a hammering action is used to break up the rock. A steel bit is attached to the end of a drilling rod, and the whole assembly is rotated. As the bit hits the stone, it breaks it up, Percussion drilling is suitable for drilling in hard formations.
Hand-auger drilling is a type of drilling that uses a hand-powered auger to drill holes. An auger is a drilling tool with a helical screw blade attached to a shaft. The auger is rotated by hand, and the debris falls down the hole. Hand-auger drilling is a slow process and is only suitable for unconsolidated deposits.
Jetting is a drilling method that uses high-pressure water to drill through unconsolidated materials such as sand or gravel. The waterjet drilling system consists of a pump, a hose, and a nozzle. The pump pressurizes the water to create a jet of high-pressure water that hits the drilling target. The high-pressure water breaks up the material and washes it away, forming a hole.
Sludging is a drilling method that uses a slurry of mud and water to lubricate and cool the drill bit. It is suitable for drilling in all types of rocks but is most effective in consolidated formations. The main disadvantage of this method is that it produces a lot of drilling waste, which can be challenging to dispose of in an environmentally-friendly way.
Air Hammer drilling a drilling method that uses a rotary drill bit to create holes. It is suitable for drilling in consolidated formations. The main disadvantage of this method is that it is expensive.
Rotary mud drilling is a method that uses a rotary drill bit to create holes. It is suitable for drilling in all types offormations. The main advantage of this method is that it can be swift and efficient. However, the main disadvantage is that it requires a large amount of water, which may not be available in arid or drought-prone areas.
HydroLOGICA: Making a Difference in Rural Communities
At HydroLOGICA, we provide safe water access to schools and communities, all while training the world. We support economic development through efficient water access to rural communities. Get in touch with the best water well drilling company in Nicaragua.